Forms of relativism[ edit ] Anthropological versus philosophical relativism[ edit ] Anthropological relativism refers to a methodological stance, in which the researcher suspends or brackets his or her own cultural biases while attempting to understand beliefs and behaviors in their local contexts. This has become known as methodological relativismand concerns itself specifically with avoiding ethnocentrism or the application of one's own cultural standards to the assessment of other cultures. An emic or insider account of behavior is a description of a society in terms that are meaningful to the participant or actor's own culture; an emic account is therefore culture-specific, and typically refers to what is considered " common sense " within the culture under observation. An etic or outsider account is a description of a society by an observer, in terms that can be applied to other cultures; that is, an etic account is culturally neutral, and typically refers to the conceptual framework of the social scientist.
Please answer all questions completely, but concisely. The exam will consist of selections from the following questions. You will have 50 minutes to complete the exam.
To complete the exam in 50 minutes, it will be important to have thought out your answers in advance. In preparing for the exam, you are encouraged to discuss these questions with other members of the class, and to discuss what the relevant considerations would be in answering them. You should not discuss the wording of an answer or attempt to come up with an agreed upon answer.
If you draft answers to the questions, you should not show your draft answers to others, nor should you read or copy someone else's draft answers. I will provide a sample question and answer in lecture.
In answering the following questions, whenever you are asked to discuss the views of any of the authors we have read, your answer should show that you are familiar with the reading, especially with the reasons they give for their positions.
Explain and distinguish the following pairs or groups of terms. You are not required to define them. You can use examples to illustrate them. However, your explanations or examples should be adequate for explaining the distinctions to a reasonably intelligent person with no philosophical background.
Why can we not find out about the nature of moral rightness or moral wrongness by looking up the words "right" and "wrong" or "moral" and "immoral" in the dictionary?
Each of the following normative moral rules or principles can be interpreted as an attempt to provide a purely descriptive sufficient condition for moral wrongness. For each rule or principle: If so, describe it and explain why it is a counterexample.
If not, explain why not. There is more than one way to interpret the Golden Rule in answering this question.
Normative ethical relativism is a theory, which claims that there are no universally valid moral principles. Normative ethical relativism theory says that the moral rightness and wrongness of actions varies from society to society and that there are no absolute universal moral standards binding on all men at all times. I an examination of relativity of moral standards ask greed lust and the american dream in the great gatsby a novel by f scott fitzgerald questions about the factors leading to the revolutions of and social philosophy for an analysis of the technological age and the sensibility of the study of humanities Yeah. a history of. Ethics and Values ~ Study Guide for Final Exam Ethics and Values Ethics-: Study of Action. a system of moral principles: The moral standards adn legal laws sometimes have opposite contents. Moral codes are diverse and changing over time. A difference between the moral and legal laws is.
Any reasonable interpretation will be accepted, so long as it can be plausibly be regarded as giving a purely descriptive sufficient condition for moral wrongness. Love all others as yourself. For each of the following implication claims: In your answer explain which levels are above which others [you may use a diagram].
Use an example to illustrate your explanation. To answer part byou do not have to discuss all the levels. It is sufficient to choose two levels and to show that moral disagreement at the lower of the two levels does not imply moral disagreement at the higher of the two levels.
For each of the following authors: Why is normative cultural relativism incompatible with the claim that the Western European colonizers or North and South America should have respected the religious practices of the American natives?
Why is the advocate of Normative Cultural Relativism committed to there being at least one normative rule or principle that applies to all cultures? What normative rule or principle is it? What is the difference between Relative and Non-Relative Tolerance?Ethics are moral principles or values that specify acceptable conduct, and determine how an institution will be governed.
According to Shanahan and Wang, in their book Reason and Insight, the subject of ethics is morality, which is concerned with the practice. Moral relativism is an important topic in metaethics. It is also widely discussed outside philosophy (for example, by political and religious leaders), and it is controversial among philosophers and nonphilosophers alike.
Those attracted to moral relativism often maintain that different societies have different moral beliefs and practices. But close examination reveals that these differences often derive from differences in the way people view the world (descriptive beliefs) rather than from their holding different moral principles.
Moral relativism encompasses the differences in moral judgments among people and cultures.
Truth relativism is the doctrine that there are no absolute truths, and concerns itself specifically with avoiding ethnocentrism or the application of one's own cultural standards to the assessment of other cultures.
EXAM BOOKS WITH NOTES WRITTEN ON THEM OR WITH PAGES MISSING WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. Please answer all questions completely, but concisely. ANSWER IN COMPLETE SENTENCES. The exam will consist of selections from the following questions. You will have 50 minutes to complete the exam. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Ethical relativism vs absolutism: Research implications | b>Purpose – The constructs of relativism and absolutism have a significant role to play in the.