Eisenhardt 's methodological work. Yin 's guidelines and making positivist assumptions. There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches.
After assessment, clinical psychologists may provide a diagnostic impression. Both are nosological systems that largely assume categorical disorders diagnosed through the application of sets of criteria including symptoms and signs. Once observations have been collected e. One way is to combine the data in an algorithmicor "mechanical" fashion.
Mechanical prediction does not preclude any type of data from being combined; it can incorporate clinical judgments, properly coded, in the algorithm. That is, it will make exactly the same prediction for exactly the same data every time.
Clinical prediction, on the other hand, does not guarantee this, as it depends on the decision-making processes of the clinician making the judgment, their current state of mind, and knowledge base. Meehl concluded that mechanical modes of combination performed as well or better than clinical modes.
Psychotherapy Psychotherapy involves a formal relationship between professional and client—usually an individual, couple, family, or small group—that employs a set of procedures intended to form a therapeutic alliance, explore the nature of psychological problems, and encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving.
Clinical psychologists generally seek to base their work on research evidence and outcome studies as well as on trained clinical judgment. Although there are literally dozens of recognized therapeutic orientations, their differences can often be categorized on two dimensions: Therapy will look very different between, say, a traumatized child, a depressed but high-functioning adult, a group of people recovering from substance dependence, and a ward of the state suffering from terrifying delusions.
Other elements that play a critical role in the process of psychotherapy include the environment, culture, age, cognitive functioning, motivation, and duration i.
In the UK, clinical psychologists have to show competence in at least two models of therapy, including CBT, to gain their doctorate. The British Psychological Society Division of Clinical Psychology has been vocal about the need to follow the evidence base rather than being wedded to a single model of therapy.
In the USA, intervention applications and research are dominated in training and practice by essentially four major schools of practice: Psychodynamic psychotherapy The psychodynamic perspective developed out of the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud. The core object of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious—to make the client aware of his or her own primal drives namely those relating to sex and aggression and the various defenses used to keep them in check.
Major variations on Freudian psychoanalysis practiced today include self psychologyego psychologyand object relations theory. These general orientations now fall under the umbrella term psychodynamic psychology, with common themes including examination of transference and defenses, an appreciation of the power of the unconscious, and a focus on how early developments in childhood have shaped the client's current psychological state.
Humanistic psychology Humanistic psychology was developed in the s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis, largely due to the person-centered therapy of Carl Rogers often referred to as Rogerian Therapy and existential psychology developed by Viktor Frankl and Rollo May.
FromHans-Werner Gessmann integrated the ideas of humanistic psychology into group psychotherapy as humanistic psychodrama. The mission of the humanistic psychologist is to help the individual employ these resources via the therapeutic relationship. Behavioral and cognitive behavioral[ edit ] Main articles: Cognitive behavioral therapy and Behaviour therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT developed from the combination of cognitive therapy and rational emotive behavior therapyboth of which grew out of cognitive psychology and behaviorism.
CBT is based on the theory that how we think cognitionhow we feel emotionand how we act behavior are related and interact together in complex ways. In this perspective, certain dysfunctional ways of interpreting and appraising the world often through schemas or beliefs can contribute to emotional distress or result in behavioral problems.
The object of many cognitive behavioral therapies is to discover and identify the biased, dysfunctional ways of relating or reacting and through different methodologies help clients transcend these in ways that will lead to increased well-being.
Modified approaches that fall into the category of CBT have also developed, including dialectic behavior therapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. It is well researched with a strong evidence base. Its roots are in behaviorism.Pros and cons of case studies in clinical psychology research and education are discussed.
and they are cited and reflected in research papers and books up to now (e.g., Lesser & Schoenberg, ; Pflug et al., ).
Clinical Psychology in Action: A collection of case studies illustrates the range and diversity of modern clinical psychology practice, gives discussion material for students and practitioners of psychological therapy, and provides case materials for students of abnormal psychology.
Jobs You Can Get with a Psychology Degree. A degree in psychology can prepare you for a psychology career and for jobs in many other fields. To learn more about what you can do with a psychology degree, review the following job descriptions that provide salary information, helpful skills, and common tasks associated with each job.
|Frequently bought together||High-Quality Psychotherapy Research Disclaimer Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations.|
|Tuesday, October 27, 5: Information on Clinical Psychology Dear Dr.|
|Case Studies in Abnormal Psychology Case Studies in Abnormal Psychologytakes mental disorders from the realm of theory into the complex reality of human lives.|
|And so the unconscious motive to satisfy others will often conflict with our basic need for self-preservation. Moreover, in addition to these social demands, the physical world around us often assaults us through accidents and natural disasters.|
A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies.
Some great examples of case studies in psychology include Anna O, Phineas Gage, and Genie. Fully updated for DSM-5, this exciting revision complements the abnormal psychology course by providing 17 case histories based on the authors' clinical experiences. The book will be of value to clinical psychologists, students, and teachers of psychology.
Show less Clinical Psychology in Action: A collection of case studies illustrates the range and diversity of modern clinical psychology practice, gives discussion material for students and practitioners of psychological therapy, and provides case.