The Department reserves the right to place any student in the course most appropriate to his or her skill level.
Mesoamerican writing systems A stone slab with 3,year-old writing, the Cascajal Blockwas discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about BC.
The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD.
Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: Iron Age writing[ edit ] Cippus PerusinusEtruscan writing near PerugiaItalythe precursor of the Latin alphabet The Phoenician alphabet is simply the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as it was continued into the Iron Age conventionally taken from a cut-off date of BC.
This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets. These in turn led to the writing systems used throughout regions ranging from Western Asia to Africa and Europe.
For its part the Greek alphabet introduced for the first time explicit symbols for vowel sounds. The Brahmic family of India is believed by some scholars to have derived from the Aramaic alphabet as well.
Several varieties of the Greek alphabet developed. The other variation, known as Eastern Greekwas used in present-day Turkey and by the Athenians, and eventually the rest of the world that spoke Greek adopted this variation.
After first writing right to left, like the Phoenicians, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right. Greek is in turn the source for all the modern scripts of Europe.
The most widespread descendant of Greek is the Latin scriptnamed for the Latinsa central Italian people who came to dominate Europe with the rise of Rome. The Romans learned writing in about the 5th century BC from the Etruscan civilizationwho used one of a number of Italic scripts derived from the western Greeks.
Due to the cultural dominance of the Roman state, the other Italic scripts have not survived in any great quantity, and the Etruscan language is mostly lost. Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance except within the Church of Rome.
The primary literary languages were Greek and Persianthough other languages such as Syriac and Coptic were important too. The rise of Islam in the 7th century led to the rapid rise of Arabic as a major literary language in the region.
Arabic script was adopted as the primary script of the Persian language and the Turkish language. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languagesLatinand other languages[ citation needed ].
The Arabic language also served to spread the Hindu—Arabic numeral system throughout Europe. Renaissance and the modern era[ edit ] By the 14th century a rebirth, or renaissancehad emerged in Western Europe, leading to a temporary revival of the importance of Greek, and a slow revival of Latin as a significant literary language.
A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia.
At the same time Arabic and Persian began a slow decline in importance as the Islamic Golden Age ended. The revival of literary development in Western Europe led to many innovations in the Latin alphabet and the diversification of the alphabet to codify the phonologies of the various languages.
The nature of writing has been constantly evolving, particularly due to the development of new technologies over the centuries.
The penthe printing pressthe computer and the mobile phone are all technological developments which have altered what is written, and the medium through which the written word is produced.
Particularly with the advent of digital technologies, namely the computer and the mobile phone, characters can be formed by the press of a button, rather than making a physical motion with the hand.
The nature of the written word has recently evolved to include an informal, colloquial written style, in which an everyday conversation can occur through writing rather than speaking.
Written communication can also be delivered with minimal time delay e-mailSMSand in some cases, with an imperceptible time delay instant messaging.The Early Learning Center Teacher is responsible for providing a developmentally appropriate education under the direction of the Director in a manner that contributes .
Ancient Chinese writing evolved from the practice of divination during the Shang Dynasty ( BCE). Some theories suggest that images and markings on pottery shards found at Ban Po Village are evidence of an early writing system but this claim has been challenged repeatedly.
The Chinese specialization in foreign languages and literatures develops proficiency in the Chinese language and acquaints students with the literature and cultural history of China. Courses are also available for those interested in business Chinese, classical Chinese, film, and women's studies.
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Early Chinese Literature (=AncSt , Chin , EALC ). In this course we survey various genres of the Chinese literary tradition from its beginning until the end of the classical age (roughly A.D. ). Ch5:Explain the connections between early Chinese writing and cultural development The books of Change, History, Rites, and songs are about cultural things and you wouldn't have the books if they were not able to write. The Chinese specialization in foreign languages and literatures develops proficiency in the Chinese language and acquaints students with the literature and cultural history of China. Courses are also available for those interested in business Chinese, classical Chinese, film, and women's studies.
Retaliation is also prohibited by university policy. William Hedberg's primary research focus is the literature and culture of early modern Japan, and his current project centers on the reception of late imperial Chinese fiction during the . In addition to familiarizing students with the Chinese literary canon, the course will focus on literary analysis and interpretation, cross-cultural reading, and philosophical, political, and social issues in Chinese literary culture.