The History Learning Site, 16 Mar
Membership in a clan was more important than membership in anything else. An alien had no rights, no legal security, unless he was adopted into a clan. For example, if a war party happened to capture an enemy and the captive was not adopted by a clan, then any sort of torture could be inflicted upon him.
But if he were adopted into one of his captors' clans, then no one could touch him for fear of suffering vengeance from the adopting clan. The rights of clansmanship were so fundamental they were seldom if ever challenged.
This was because of friendship, for great affection was sometimes forged between those of alien nations. Some Cherokee women had Creek friends, for instance, and sometimes named their children for them, which accounts for some Cherokees ending up with foreign names names that were not Cherokee in origin.
These adopted Cherokees were given the same protection and privileges of any other member of the clan. So it can truly be said that membership in a Cherokee clan could be either by birth or adoption, both carrying the same weight, and no distinction being made between the two.
This was usually "symbolized by a complete exchange of clothing and sometimes of names as well. It lasted throughout life, binding the Ind.
Among other odd items strung for necklaces were bear and bobcat eye teeth and turtle thigh bones. Some of the bone ornaments were decorated with engraving. Marine shell and copper ornaments have occasionally been found but were rare because the shells had to come from the distant Gulf of Mexico and the copper from the Lake Superior region.
Small shells were merely perforated, while large conchs were cut up and made into beads of various sizes. Two small holes, drilled close together near the edge, indicate that they were worn suspended from necklaces, with the concave surfaces showing elaborately engraved designs.
Variations of the central symbol, called a triskelion, are also found in the Old World where they appear on many different objects. An intricately balanced design was formed by a coiled rattlesnake with gaping jaws. Pileated woodpeckers, wild turkeys and spiders were depicted with a combination of realism and stylized art.
All of these creatures -- snakes, birds and insects, figured in mythology Small fresh water and marine shells, unaltered except for perforations, formed necklaces or were sewn into garments and headbands. Beads cut from the cores of marine conchs were used in the same manner and also for legbands, belts and wrist cuffs.
While most of these beads were small, having disk, globular, and tubular shapes, others were as large as walnuts. One excavated necklace contained a thousand pearls, and individual examples a half inch in diameter have been found The fabulous size and beauty of the pearls Disk-shaped beads were generally cut from bivalves and pierced.
Every shaman was in possession of sacred beads, some red, some black, some white. During the early days of white settlement in the northern continent wampum was a recognized medium of exchange, or, when arranged on strings in a particular order as to color, served in the conveyance of intertribal messages, or, when woven into a form known as belts, played an important part in the ratification of treaties.
In personal adornment, the belts were very effective. Woven into the form of collars, or on strings as necklaces, ear-pendants, or wristlets, they were more commonly used. The quahog, or hard-clam Venus mercenariafurnished extensively the material for the manufacture of both colors of wampum, although other shells of a suitable nature, such as the columellae of the conch, were used for the white beads It was only the large, inedible clams that had a shell thick enough to have a purple band of three-eights of an inch thick, or thereabout.
Then they roll it continually on their Thighs with their Right-hand, holding the Bit of Shell with their left, so in time they drill a Hole quite through it, which is a very tedious Work. These past with them instead of Gold and Silver, and serv'd them both for Money, and Ornament They are wrought as smooth as Glass, being one third of an inch long, and about a quarter, diameter, strung by a hole drill'd thro the Center.
The dark colour is the dearest, and distinguish'd by the name of Wampom Peak. The English-men that are called Ind.Henry VIII wives 1.
Catherine of Aragon. Henry VIII’s first wife was Catherine of Aragon, daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. Eight years before her marriage to Henry in , Catherine was in fact married to Henry’s older brother, Arthur, who died of sickness at just 15 years old.
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The six wives of King Henry VIII were a disparate group of women united only by their marriages to Bluff King Hal. There is a famous rhyme describing their various ends – ‘Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived’.