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Quality of life According to David K. Owens, the former executive vice president of the Edison Electric Institutetwo key elements that a smart city must have are an integrated communications platform and a "dynamic resilient grid.
The framework is divided into 4 main dimensions: Technology framework[ edit ] Several concepts of the Smart city rely heavily on the use of technology; a technological Smart City is not just one concept but there are different combinations of technological infrastructure that build a concept of smart city.
The main purpose is to create an environment in which citizens are interconnected and easily share information anywhere in the city. In these kinds of cities functions are implemented in a cyberspace; it includes the notion of hybrid city, which consists of a reality with real citizens and entities and a parallel virtual city of real entities and people.
Having a smart city that is virtual means that in some cities it is possible the coexistence between these two reality, however the issue of physical distance and location is still not easy to manage.
The vision of the world without distance still remains unmet in many ways. In practice this idea is hold up through physical IT infrastructure of cables, data centers, and exchanges. It collects local information and delivered them to the public portal; In that city, many inhabitants are able to live and even work on the Internet because they could obtain every information through IT infrastructures, thanks to the sharing information method among citizens themselves.
Using this approach, an information city could be an urban centre both economically and socially speaking; the most important thing is the linkage among civic services, people interactions and government institutions.
The notion emerges in a social context in which knowledge, learning process and creativity have great importance and the human capital is considered the most precious resource within this type of technological city. In particular one of the most significant feature of an intelligent city is that every infrastructure is up to date, that means have the latest technology in telecommunications, electronic and mechanical technology.
It creates an environment that connect citizens to any services through any device. According to Anthopoulos, L.
This makes easier to the citizen the use of any available devices to interconnect them.
Its goal is to create a city where any citizen can get any services anywhere and anytime through any kind of devices. It is important to highlights that the ubiquitous city is different from the above virtual city: Cognitive smart city expands the concept of the smart city by referring to the convergence of the emerging Internet of Things IoT and smart city technologies, their generated big dataand artificial intelligence techniques.
Continuous learning through human interactions and consequently performing a dynamic and flexible behavior and actions based on the dynamic environment of the city are the core components of such framework.
Human framework[ edit ] Human infrastructure i. Social infrastructures, like for instance intellectual and social capital are indispensable factors to build a city that is smart according to the human framework.
These infrastructures concern people and their relationship. Smart City benefits from social capital and it could be possible and easier to create a Smart city concept if there are mix of education and training, culture and arts, business and commerce as Bartlett, L.
This type of city in the human context improves the competitiveness in the global knowledge economy and Campbell  established a typology of cities that are learning to be smart: That lead a city to learn how it should be possible and realistic to be smart through learning process followed by city workforce.
It exploits human potential, in particular the knowledge workforce.
Following this approach, it is possible focus on education and builds a center of higher education, which is the city, obtaining better-educated individuals. According to Glaeser, E. R,  this view moves a smart city concept in a city full of skilled workforces; the same reasoning could be make for those high tech knowledge-sensitive industries which want to migrate in a so dynamic and proactive community.
As a consequence of the above movement, the difference between Smart City and not are getting wider; Smart places are getting smarter while other places getting less smart because such places act as a magnet for creative people and workers Malanga, S.
The concept of knowledge city is linked with similar evolving concepts of Smart City such as intelligent city and educating city. The most important feature of this city is the fundamental concept of knowledge-based urban development, which has become an important and widespread mechanism for the development of knowledge cities.
Institutional framework[ edit ] According to Moser, M.Foursquare is a local search-and-discovery service mobile app which provides search results for its users. The app provides personalized recommendations of places to go to near a user's current location based on users' "previous browsing history, purchases, or check-in history".
Lesson Plan: Crafting A SMART thesis statement (Claudia Filos, Classics Department) Objective: To help students learn strategies for developing a strong thesis statement by presenting the paradigm of A SMART thesis, a valuable tool in evaluating the different aspects of a complex and strong thesis statement.
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- The ability for the user to maximize on the smart home by having products and services that are of high quality, function well and provide value - A large part of the user experience hinges on. Yes, it will. The sum of normal distributions is a normal distribution.
There are of course reasons to expect an asymmetrical bell curve (the simple way to hack funnel plots is to game your choice of axis – here, for example, focusing on the elasticity of labour demand favours certain labour market models above others).
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