Chemosynthesis and Hydrothermal Vent Life Introduction Just a few decades ago, submersibles and remote sensing technologies allowed scientists to visit the farthest reaches of the ocean for the very first time. Of the many wonders they discovered, one of the most surprising was the existence of rich clusters of life flourishing in the darkness of the deep sea floor. The inner workings of these ecosystems have proved to be as unusual as their location, for they are powered not by the light of the sun but by the heat of the earth.
The Calvin cycle of photosynthesis Primary production is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms. The main source of this energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules.
Regardless of its source, this energy is used to synthesize complex organic molecules from simpler inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide CO2 and water H2O.
The following two equations are simplified representations of photosynthesis top and one form of chemosynthesis bottom: These relatively simple molecules may be then used to further synthesise more complicated molecules, including proteinscomplex carbohydrateslipidsand nucleic acidsor be respired to perform work.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis. Of the following greenhouse gases, _____ concentrations have increased the most since A. Chemosynthesis to supply kinetic energy in the form of chemical bonds. E. Which of the following is not a renewable resource? A. Chemical energy stored in organic molecules produced by photosynthesis. What roles in a food web does the diet of owls represent? A. B. B. Kinetic energy stored in organic molecules produced by photosynthesis.
Consumption of primary producers by heterotrophic organisms, such as animalsthen transfers these organic molecules and the energy stored within them up the food webfueling all of the Earth 's living systems.
Gross primary production and net primary production[ edit ] Gross primary production GPP is the amount of chemical energy as biomass that primary producers create in a given length of time. GPP is sometimes confused with Net Primary productivity, which is the rate at which photosynthesis or chemosynthesis occurs.
Some fraction of this fixed energy is used by primary producers for cellular respiration and maintenance of existing tissues i. Some net primary production goes toward growth and reproduction of primary producers, while some is consumed by herbivores.
Both gross and net primary production are in units of mass per unit area per unit time interval. Terrestrial production[ edit ] An oak tree; a typical modern, terrestrial autotroph On the land, almost all primary production is now performed by vascular plantswith a small fraction coming from algae and non-vascular plants such as mosses and liverworts.
Before the evolution of vascular plants, non-vascular plants likely played a more significant role. Primary production on land is a function of many factors, but principally local hydrology and temperature the latter covaries to an extent with light, specifically photosynthetically active radiation PARthe source of energy for photosynthesis.
While plants cover much of the Earth's surface, they are strongly curtailed wherever temperatures are too extreme or where necessary plant resources principally water and PAR are limiting, such as deserts or polar regions. Water is "consumed" in plants by the processes of photosynthesis see above and transpiration.
Transpiration allows plants to transport water and mineral nutrients from the soil to growth regions, and also cools the plant. Diffusion of water vapour out of a leaf, the force that drives transpiration, is regulated by structures known as stomata. These structure also regulate the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the leaf, such that decreasing water loss by partially closing stomata also decreases carbon dioxide gain.
Certain plants use alternative forms of photosynthesis, called Crassulacean acid metabolism CAM and C4. These employ physiological and anatomical adaptations to increase water-use efficiency and allow increased primary production to take place under conditions that would normally limit carbon fixation by C3 plants the majority of plant species.
Oceanic production[ edit ] Marine diatoms ; an example of planktonic microalgae In a reversal of the pattern on land, in the oceans, almost all photosynthesis is performed by algae, with a small fraction contributed by vascular plants and other groups.
Algae encompass a diverse range of organisms, ranging from single floating cells to attached seaweeds.Some organisms use chemosynthesis to survive.
where do they get their energy for this process - A deep sea community is which of the following represents chemosynthesis any community of organisms associated by a shared habitat in essay conclusion addiction paragraph drug the deep sea.
· In this lesson we will answer the question of which of the following represents chemosynthesis why big fierce animals are rare, and along the way we will learn to answer the following questions as well. Chemosynthesis By: Lucinda and Charlotte Laurence APES, SPRING Food Relationships What we are Loosing?
Merriam Webster Definition of Chemosynthesis Hydrothermal Vents What is Chemosynthesis? Each layer of the web represents a particular role in the movement of organic energy through the e their unusual nature, faunas based on chemosynthesis are tied together by food webs similar to those of better-known communities.
the following represents an example of aerobic cellular respiration? glucose + oxygen → water + carbon dioxide + energy Which of the following represents chemosynthesis?
In these communities, bacteria have special enzymes that allow them to form organic matter by chemosynthesis. These communities frequently have worms, clams, shrimp, and many other organisms clustered together.